A petition with more than 11,000 signatures demanded that Thomas not be allowed to teach this coming term.
Thomas previously said that she would speak to the committee, but has since backtracked on that pledge.
Ocasio-Cortez said voting against the contraceptive access bill was the “first step” to attacking contraception.
The bill comes as a response to Clarence Thomas’s warning that birth control could be next on the chopping block.
Even though the bill has bipartisan support, it faces difficult odds of passage in the Senate due to the filibuster.
In May, Elizabeth Warren introduced a bill to hold justices to a binding ethics code and ban them from trading stocks.
Though only one Supreme Court justice has ever been impeached, the current circumstances are unprecedented.
The justice faces criticism over his refusal to recuse himself from Supreme Court cases involving his wife’s work.
Thomas wants to revisit a nearly six-year-old precedent that experts say is vital to protecting freedom of speech.
“The Supreme Court has dramatically overreached its authority,” the lawmaker said.